Cooking oil, lard, cooking spray, and butter or margarine are used as substitutes for shortening. When substituting for shortening, bakers can expect to see changes in the texture and color of baked goods.
Cooking oil is used when a recipe calls for shortening to be melted. Cooks use the same measurement of oil as they would shortening. When substituting with lard, bakers must be sure to use 2 tablespoons more than a cup for every cup needed. Lard tends to alter the taste of a recipe, so it is a good idea to test it. Butter and margarine brown more quickly than shortening does; therefore it is recommended to bake items at a higher temperature for a shorter period of time when using these substitutions.