Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts, also known as the Coercive Acts, in response to the Boston Tea Party. The Boston Tea Party was the colonists' answer to the Tea Act of 1773, which allowed the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists without having to pay the taxes that colonial tea merchants had to pay.
On December 16, 1773, about 150 colonists dressed up as Mohawk Indians and dumped tea taken from the British East India Company's ships into the Boston Harbor. Upon learning the identity of the responsible parties, King George III and Parliament demanded that the colonists pay the company for the wasted tea, but the colonists refused. To punish the colonists for their actions, Parliament established the Intolerable Acts, which included the Quartering Act, the Boston Port Bill, the Administration of Justice Act, the Massachusetts Government Act and the Quebec Act.
The Quartering Act required the colonists to provide lodging and supplies to British troops. The Boston Port Bill closed Boston Harbor until the colonists paid for the tea dumped into the harbor. The Administration of Justice Act allowed British officials to be extradited back to England, even if they had committed capital crimes in the colonies. The Massachusetts Government Act allowed the British governor, not the colonists, to control the town meetings. Finally, the Quebec Act extended Canada's borders to encompass western lands already claimed by the colonists. In September of 1774, the colonists met in Philadelphia in the First Continental Congress to discuss what they would do in response to the Intolerable Acts.