A prime number is a number that cannot be divided evenly by another number except itself and one. For example, the number 3 is a prime number because it can only be divided by 3 and 1. Numbers that can be evenly divided by other numbers are called composite number. All even numbers, with the exception of 2, are composite numbers because they can be divided evenly by 2. The number 64 is a composite number.

The prime factorization of a number is to find a list of the prime numbers that can be multiplied together to get the original number. This is different than the factorization of a number, which can include both prime an composite numbers. Prime factorization is used in security features such as computer encryption.

The easiest way to find the prime factors of 64 is to being by dividing it by 2, which results in 2 x 32. Since 2 is a prime number, the first prime factor is 2. The number 32 can be divided by 2, which results in 2 x 16. The second prime factor of 64 is 2. Dividing 16 by 2 results in 8 and a third prime factor of 2. Dividing 8 by 2 results in 4 and a fourth prime factor of 2. Dividing 4 by 2 results in 2, and gives the prime factors of 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2.