The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau encompassed an array of theories relating to political philosophy and moral psychology, particularly as they concerned human freedom. His philosophy idealized humans in a state of nature uncorrupted by society and with complete physical freedom. Recognizing a return to the natural state as impossible in modern society, Rousseau conducted philosophical explorations to identify ways to be as free as possible within given constraints.Continue Reading
Under Rousseau's idealized social contract, free and equal humans trade their individual rights for civil rights. They voluntarily agree to come together and by unanimous consent to its authority create a civil society, a new sovereign body dedicated to the general will that acts in the interests of the good of all.
Humans became alienated from their natural state through dependence, economic and social inequalities and the extent to which people judge themselves through comparisons with others.
In Rousseau's political philosophy, inequality is unnatural and largely a product of artificial needs. To Rousseau, the advent of private property was a pivotal turning point in the decline from a state of nature, and he believed all humans possessed a natural goodness but were corrupted by society.
He advocated for a form of education that emphasized development of children's natural capacities.Learn more about Philosophy
Learners can take introduction to philosophy, history of modern philosophy and philosophy of law online. They can also take a course on the philosophy of quantum mechanics.Full Answer >
Western philosophy began in Ancient Greece, dealing with the basic nature of the world, known as ontology; the discussion of whether it's possible to know any fact for certain, called epistemology; and the basis for moral judgment, or ethics. These subjects are still studied in academic courses on philosophy as of 2015. An overview of philosophical thought can be found at Philosophy Pages.Full Answer >
The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics.Full Answer >
Confucius changed China by spreading teachings that became the official state philosophy, which changed many aspects of Chinese culture, including school teachings, etiquette, attitudes and government. Confucius was born during a time when the established social behavior and norms were not respected, and Confucius helped to change that.Full Answer >