Overt behavior refers to actions that are able to be observed. These include behaviors such as whispering, walking, yawning and jumping. People who study human behavior sometimes classify overt actions into categories by form, intensity, duration and frequency.Continue Reading
For instance, walking potentially fits into many possible classifications. One example of walking is a stooped form, an intensity level of three miles per hour, a duration of 45 minutes and a frequency of four times a week.
It is also possible to organize yawing into categories. One form uses a hand to cover the open mouth, the intensity is a fully opened mouth, the duration is three seconds and the frequency is once every five minutes. These behaviors are overt, because they are observable to anyone who cares to pay attention.
Overt behavior is contrasted to covert behavior. These actions are not observable because they occur inside people's heads. They include thinking, daydreaming, wishing and hoping. Often no one knows covert behaviors are happening except the person performing them.
Covert behaviors are sometimes detected through inference. For instance, when students are taking a test and writing down answers, the inference is made that they are thinking. Sometimes researchers use technological devices, such as heart rate monitors, when studying covert behaviors. They then draw conclusions about internal actions. For example, people's heart rates typically increase when they feel scared of worried.Learn more about Psychology
The social learning theory, developed by Dr. Albert Bandura, proposes that learning can occur simply by observing the actions of others. While traditional theories of learning suggest that all learning is the result of associations formed by conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment, Bandura was the first to add a social element.Full Answer >
The victim precipitation theory, also referred to as the victim precipitation approach, hypothesizes that victims of violent crimes and sexual assault put themselves in harm's way through their own actions. Criminal assailants and their victims are often referred to as penal couples. This concept views the victim as a participant in the crime because her presence provides the offender with the opportunity to commit the offense.Full Answer >
Cyberbullying has serious criminal and civil consequences for perpetrators, who can face either criminal or civil charges depending on the damage caused by their actions. Although there is no federal law that specifically targets cyberbullying, bullies can still be charged through existing civil laws for defamation, creating an unsafe environment and for the consequences of their actions, especially when it is possible for them to anticipate those consequences.Full Answer >
Sigmund Freud was the originator of psychoanalysis, and contributed many psychodynamic theories to popular understanding, including the notion that human emotions and actions are largely controlled by unconscious motivations and that the psyche has three notable parts: Id, Ego and Superego. Freud also introduced the psychosexual stages of development.Full Answer >