Urbanization causes environmental and economic strain on land and people. Additionally, urbanization can indirectly affect society by contributing to health problems as a result of pollution and food shortages.Continue Reading
As of 2014, nearly half of the world's population lives in an urban setting. Many people relocate to cities from rural areas in search of better job opportunities and access to services, such as health care and education. However, a higher concentration of people within a region can cause shortages of important resources, such as food and water. Stores of petroleum and natural gas, as well as ecosystems destroyed by massive deforestation to accommodate growing populations, cannot be immediately replaced. Increased industrial activity also raises pollution levels that contribute to respiratory health problems. A lack of appropriate sanitation and waste disposal systems increases the spread of infectious disease.
Urban communities must devise plans to contain health care costs while investing in hospitals and clinics at the same time. Preventative measures, such as environmentally friendly public transportation, can also be costly.
Urban areas may also undergo gentrification, a process in which wealthy young professionals relocate to once economically depressed areas. As the economic demographics in the area shift, the cost of living in the area rises and displaces the original inhabitants, often minorities whose culture significantly contributed to the character of the area.Learn more about Population & Demography
The nationality of people from India, the land of spiced curry, Kathak dance and the Taj Mahal, is Indian. With a country population of just over 1.2 billion as of 2014, Indians speak a host of tongues and have 15 official languages that include Hindi, Bengali, Telugu, Marathi and English.Full Answer >
Consequences of urbanization include unequal wealth distribution, health hazards and violence. Some of these consequences arise from a large amount of people in urban areas that are either homeless or living in poor quality housing, according to the United Nations. The United Nations also notes that increases in urban crime and violence can be traced to poverty and social disintegration.Full Answer >
Some of the problems that develop from urbanization are a strain on basic services, increased poverty, poor public education, sanitation problems and rising crime rates. Urbanization, which is basically rapid urban growth, also brings with it a condition referred to as "urban sprawl" in which scattered urban development results in traffic congestion, environmental deterioration and the loss of open space and parks. In many of the high-density living areas in megacities, which are cities with populations more than five million, significant portions of the inhabitants, sometimes as high as 40 percent, live in a state of environmental degradation, poor security and irreversible poverty.Full Answer >
A potential positive effect of interest groups is the opportunity they provide for people to contribute to a democratic political process. Competing goals among interest groups can also balance the groups out and prevent a single minority from imposing its will on the majority. A negative effect of interest groups is that a powerful minority can more easily influence politics and jeopardize service delivery.Full Answer >