The SAT isn't the kind a student can "pass" or "fail." It's used as a measurement tool to compare one student's abilities to others in order for colleges to make admissions decisions.
The subject scores for the test range from 200 to 800 with subset scores reported on a scale from 20 to 80. Collegeboard.org reports the average score for each subject as follows: Critical Reading - 502, Mathematics - 515, and Writing - 494. Once the College Board determines the scores, the next step compares those scores to the state's percentile. For example, if a state's percentile score of 502 is 43, that means the student who received the score did 43 percent better than other college-bound seniors. Although SAT scores are not the only consideration an admissions board makes, a higher score is more appealing to the board members.