Having dry kidneys means dehydration resulting in kidney conditions that impair renal function. These conditions include acute renal failure, chronic renal failure and kidney disease. Excessive protein or sugar commonly causes dehydration of the kidneys and kidney conditions, according to WebMD.
Kidneys are responsible for filtering waste. Kidney disease causes high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones, poor nutritional health and nerve damage. Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease, according to LiveScience.
Another cause of kidney disease is a condition called analgesic nephropathy. The long-term or regular use of over-the-counter analgesics in high doses can result in this condition, according to MedlinePlus. Other conditions which can damage or disease kidneys are kidney stones, diabetes and cancer, according to WebMD.