The novel "Holes" has two main ideas, or themes: the positive effects of kindness and friendship, and the role that fate plays in directing people's lives. Camp Green Lake, the setting of the book, provides a harsh backdrop for the expression of these themes.
Camp Green Lake is a cruel place, and that lack of kindness spreads quickly, as Kate becomes a ruthless murderer and thief, and the normally mild-mannered boy Zero beats Mr. Pendanski with a shovel when Mr. Pendanski's taunting goes too far. However, the kindness that friendship spreads shows its power, as the friendship that Zero and Stanley develops gives them both the strength to move past their harsh environment and thrive. Zero's friendship gives Stanley more happiness than he has ever felt before.
Fate has brought the Zeroni and Yelnats family together, for the apparent purpose of helping all of them. Stanley tends to believe that his luck will never turn the right way, but his ultimate development of wealth proves that fate turned out to be on his side. Some of the less likely coincidences, such as the stolen shoes sailing through the air from the hood of a car to strike Stanley on the head, are so far beyond the realm of probability that fate seems like the only explanation.