The main branches of philosophy include axiology, epistemology, metaphysics and logic. There are also various subdivisions within the three branches, such as ethics and aesthetics.Continue Reading
Divided into the topics of ethics and aesthetics, axiology is the philosophical study of value. Ethics involves the principles of morals and rules. The subject matter is examined in relation to individual conduct, social agreements and organizational values. Aesthetics encompasses the studies of standards, judgments and feelings in relation to the arts.
Epistemology is the study of human knowledge. It attempts to explain the origin and nature of knowledge. It also investigates the methods for learning, and the scope, integrity and limits of human understanding. The challenges of contextual variation are included in this branch of philosophical study.
Also referred to as ontology, metaphysics explores the nature of reality. It includes inquiries and theories about the universe, and the relationship between mind and matter.
The study of logic in philosophy examines the concept of reasoning. Understanding the nature of thought processes is central to this area of philosophy. It proposes theories about how inferences are made.
Methods of forming ideas, such as deductive reasoning, are evaluated. Logic studies also evaluate the use of generalizations, classifications and judgments.Learn more about Philosophy
Aristotle was one of the most important ancient Greek philosophers, best known for his writings that cover a wide variety of subjects, such as metaphysics, music, politics and poetry. Aristotle was a student of Plato and the mentor of Alexander the Great.Full Answer >
Aristotle was responsible for major developments in many fields that are still studied today, including logic, zoology, science, astronomy and many more. Although many of his theories were eventually supplanted by more developed studies, his ideas were incredibly influential, and many of them still form the basis of modern thought.Full Answer >
Medieval scholasticism is both a school of philosophy and a method for learning developed between the 12th and 16th centuries A.D. Best understood for its attempts to reconcile classical philosophy, particularly that of Aristotle, with Christian theology, it grew to include epistemology, the philosophy of knowledge; philosophies of science and nature; psychology; and economic theory. Medieval scholasticism was taught in cathedrals and universities.Full Answer >
The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau encompassed an array of theories relating to political philosophy and moral psychology, particularly as they concerned human freedom. His philosophy idealized humans in a state of nature uncorrupted by society and with complete physical freedom. Recognizing a return to the natural state as impossible in modern society, Rousseau conducted philosophical explorations to identify ways to be as free as possible within given constraints.Full Answer >