China is ruled by the Communist Party formed in 1949. This party has full political authority and rules the country through a system called democratic centralism.
Government of China There are divisions within the Chinese government that create all policies affecting the country. The Chinese government is divided into four sections: the legislature, executive, judiciary and military.
Legislature The legislature is the highest branch of government and acts as the parliament of China. It's comprised of the National People‰Ûªs Congress, which has nearly 3,000 members. Members of the National People‰Ûªs Congress are elected after every five years and meet once every year.
The legislature is responsible for holding and mediating debates among the congress members. Congress debates on national policies affecting China. They also formulate the laws that govern state affairs, civil issues, and criminal acts. In addition, the legislature elects the president, vice president, prime minister and the standing committee. All plans concerning national, social and economic development are also reviewed and approved by the legislative congress.
Proposed bills must pass through the legislature for approval before they can become law. For a bill to become law, it must be voted for by two-thirds of the Congress. Thereafter, the National People‰Ûªs Congress will amend the constitution and include the new law.
Executive The executive level comprises of the president, state council and the premier of the state council. The president is elected by the congress for a period of five years. Within this term, the president will be the link between the people of China and the legislature. The president only has power within the executive and not the legislature.
The premier of the state council acts as the national prime minister. He presides over the state council, which is made up of 50 members. Each of these members holds a national position in ministries and various government agencies. The state council carries out the decisions made by the National People‰Ûªs Congress and meet twice a year.
Judiciary The judicial wing of the government is made up of the Supreme People‰Ûªs Court and the Supreme People‰Ûªs Procuratorate. The Supreme Court is the highest court in the country and houses 340 judges. Supreme Court judges are elected by the National People‰Ûªs Congress to manage all administrative, economic, civil, criminal and special courts in China. The Chief Grand Justice is the head of the Supreme Court and the leader of supreme judges. The Supreme People‰Ûªs Procuratorate is the action wing of the Judiciary. It investigates crime and punishes criminals. The Procurator-General heads over the Supreme People‰Ûªs Procuratorate.
The National Military of China The Chinese military wing comprises of the People‰Ûªs Liberation Army, People‰Ûªs Armed Police and People‰Ûªs Liberation Army Militia. All three departments are presided over by the Central Military Commission. This commission has more than 10 senior military members who act under the commission‰Ûªs chairperson, who also holds the position of commander-in-chief of the military, notes the Congressional Research Service.
Functions of the Central Military Commission include formulating military policies and ensure these policies are followed by subordinate offices. In addition, the military commission is responsible for coming up with a budget for the military and for deploying army forces to war zones.