The five stages of human development according to Freudian psychosexual theory are: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. This controversial theory was proposed by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud to describe how personality develops in relation to the discovery of erogenous zones through a set of five distinct stages from early childhood into adolescence.Continue Reading
In the oral stage, the mouth is the main pleasure center. The instinctual tendency of young infants to suckle during this stage is described as a manifestation of the need to satisfy this pleasure center. Freud argued that denying children this suckling instinct was what led to the development of negative habits such as nail biting and thumb sucking.
During the anal stage, toddlers begin to experiment with a second erogenous zone that they become aware of, the anus. They learn to control their bodily functions and find pleasure in relief after being denied the need to use the toilet.
In the phallic stage, Freud proposed that preschoolers began to become aware of their genitals. During this stage, children discover the differences between themselves and the opposite sex, most commonly through their respective mothers and fathers. During this stage, the Oedipus and Electra conflicts can form in boys and girls respectively.
After these first three stages, the toddler goes into a stage of latency during which sexual instincts subside, and the conscience begins to form.
The final, genital stage involves the return of sexual impulses, leading to appropriate social behavior if the initial stages were successful or depraved sexual behavior if they were not.Learn more about Psychology
Developmental norms refer to milestones and stages of physical, cognitive or emotional development expected at any given age. Physical developments refer to changes in the body and the ability to control it. Cognitive developments refer to changes in the mind and psychology and to growth of knowledge. Emotional developments are changes to the ability to handle emotions.Full Answer >
Kohlberg's theory of development posits that during life people go through six levels of moral development, notes Professor Robert N. Barger. The first level, which exists through elementary school for most people, consists of obedience to socially acceptable norms due to the threat or application of punishment for deviation.Full Answer >
There are four parts to the theory of cognitive development postulated by biologist Jean Piaget regarding the mental and psychological development of children. The stages are the schema, assimilation, accommodation and equilibrium. Piaget argues that early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions that later progress into changes in mental operation.Full Answer >
The six stages of human embryo development are gamete formation, fertilization, cleavage, gastrulation, organ formation and tissue specialization, as Indiana University — Purdue University Indianapolis Department of Biology describes. Each stage can only progress successfully if the previous stage completed successfully.Full Answer >