What Are the Five Pillars of the Criminal Justice System in the Philippines?

The five pillars of the criminal justice system in the Philippines are law enforcement, prosecution, the courts, the penal system and the community itself. The five pillars principle was outlined in an executive order signed by President Corazon Aquino on December 19, 1989.

The five pillars or systems must work in concert with each other with checks and balances between them in order to best serve the public. Criticism of the Filipino legal system often centers around issues of disconnect. The five pillars represent many different facets of the legal system and society.

  • Law enforcement — including the Philippines Constabulary, the National Police Commission and National Bureau of Investigation
  • Prosecution — including the National Prosecution Service and judge advocate services
  • The courts — including all levels from regional to the Supreme Court
  • Corrections — including the prison, parole and probation systems
  • Community — including local governments and the Department of Social Welfare and Development