Five basic elements of human civilization include population, culture, material products, social organization and social institutions. The aspects of each element may either promote or discourage social development in a society.
The size of a society's population greatly influences change because there will be more people who come up with more ideas. Culture affects a society's values and beliefs, as well as its language and knowledge. Material products are limited in any geographical area, forcing the people to find alternatives to meet necessity. Social organization refers to the appointment or election of societal members to critical social and political positions, and social institutions include religion, education, family and governmental organizations.