What Are the Five Components of Physical Fitness?

The five components of physical fitness are cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility and body composition. Schools and gyms use the components to measure the level of a person’s fitness.

Cardiovascular endurance is associated with the way the heart and lungs work together to provide the body with oxygen. Aerobic exercise, such as swimming or jogging, can help improve a person’s cardiovascular endurance.

Muscle strength has to do with the amount of force a muscle can apply in an endeavor. A person can improve muscle strength by engaging in regular strength training exercises, such as weightlifting.

Muscle endurance measures how much continuous action a muscle can perform without exhaustion. Cycling machines, step machines, inclined treadmills, sit-ups and push-ups can test muscle endurance and help improve this component.

Flexibility measures the range of motion a joint has. Stretching the muscles can test how flexible a person is and increase that level.

Body composition is the percentage of fat, bone, water and muscle a person’s body contains. The pinch test is performed with a special instrument that measures the fat around a person’s waist. Regular exercise and a healthy diet can lessen body fat.

A doctor or personal fitness trainer can help develop a regimen to strengthen a person’s physical fitness components.