One example of defensive listening is to hear a general statement and to personalize it. When a friend says, "I'm not a big fan of people who are fake," a defensive listener may infer that the friend is indirectly calling the defensive listener fake. Personalizing impersonal statements is a very common form of defensive listening.Continue Reading
Defensive listeners tend to struggle with sarcastic humor as well, because they may assume that the speaker is putting them down in spite of the humor. While this is sometimes the case with sarcasm, it isn't always true. A colleague might joke, "John can stay and work on Saturday because it's not like he has anything else happening today." The speaker's sarcasm may stem from the fact that John has a family and is known to be quite busy. However, a defensive listener may miss the sarcasm and begin defending the fact that he does have a busy weekend.
A person with strong anxieties and insecurities is more likely to react badly when listening defensively. A spouse may say, "I've got a few other things to do, and then I'll get to that," in response to a request to complete a task. A defensive listener may view the delay as a lack of caring or interest in helping.Learn more about Psychology
One prominent example of implicit learning, or the ability to understand without being able to verbally explain, is the decoding of signals in social interactions. People are sometimes able to judge the personalities of others without engaging in prolonged conversation because of their implicit understanding of regular human behaviors.Full Answer >
An example of perception is the way children view objects differently as they develop. Early on, they only perceive individual shapes and objects, while they are later capable of recognizing relationships between objects. Another example is the phenomenon of miscommunication in which a person wrongly perceives someone's words or intentions.Full Answer >
An example of manipulation of a person would be when a man asks a young child to come see his van because it has lots of yummy candy in it and then he takes the child away. Another example of manipulation would be a young child manipulating LEGO bricks to build a tall tower.Full Answer >
An example of vicarious reinforcement is when a toddler learns to use the bathroom on his own because he saw his older siblings do the same and get rewarded for it. Another example is when a child eats all of her dinner in order to receive dessert because she has watched her older sister eat the entire meal and earn dessert.Full Answer >