One of the most common examples of illogical reasoning is the straw man argument, which often entails either isolating a particular part of an argument before then presenting it as an entirely individual or separate position, or using a very early form of a theory to support a case while ignoring the fully developed theory itself (attacking Darwinism using only Darwin's work as a source for example, ignores all the progress made since, so is not valid). Finding a source that offers an extreme view or unrealistic account of a position, then treating it as fact, is also a straw man argumentContinue Reading
Another form of illogical reasoning is the circular argument. This involves making a conclusion from an initial premise which is in turn entirely dependent on the conclusion itself, thus actually failing to prove anything. Circular arguments can be simple or complex, and can be harder to identify the more complex they become.
One example of a circular argument might be: Mr. smith is a great public speaker, because Mr. Smith has a knack of speaking well to people. This fails to prove Mr. Smith is a good public speaker at all, because the premise that he is a good speaker is based on the conclusion that he is a good speaker.Learn more about Logic & Reasoning
A strong argument is a view that is supported by solid facts and reasoning, while a weak argument follows from poor reasoning and inaccurate information. Strong arguments must be supported by reputable sources or they risk being invalidated by others. Weak arguments contain problems with the logic used to support them.Full Answer >
Logical fallacies are errors in reasoning that undercut an argument or thesis. On the surface, fallacies may seem to strengthen an argument, but in fact they rarely hold up to critique or rebuttal. Logical fallacies are often identifiable by a lack of evidence to support their claim.Full Answer >
An example of an argument from outrage is a speaker or writer relying upon their personal, subjective and overtly negative reaction to a situation as a means of persuading others to accept their point of view. A speaker might say, for example, "I was furious with my company's management when they failed to respond to my complaint, and we should all make it a priority to get these people replaced." This would be considered a non-academic and improper form of rhetoric, referred to as an ethical fallacy, because it is based on transferring the speaker's personal sense of outrage to others in an attempt to gain their support.Full Answer >
One classic example of a syllogism is "All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Socrates is mortal." A syllogism is a logical argument that forms a set of three conclusions with the first two conclusions justifying the third.Full Answer >