The effects of racism include fear, hatred, low self-esteem, cruelty, harassment, social conflict and psychological pain. The Library of Congress notes that racism can prevent access to social services and opportunities, such as education, health care and employment. Therefore, racism violates the civil rights of individuals.
Victims of racism often become bitter, anxious and angry, which can lead to violence. Racism is often directed at ethnic minorities; however, minorities can also be racist. The main types of racism are racial discrimination, institutional racism and economic disparities. Anti-racism initiatives include laws, policies, movements, beliefs and actions that are adopted to oppose racism.
According to the Library of Congress, ethnic diversity, which characterizes modern societies, reveals why organizations, institutions and individuals should oppose racism.