What Are the Dimensions of Globalization?

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The dimensions of globalization are economic, political, cultural and ecological. Economic globalization encompasses economic interrelations around the world, while political globalization encompasses the expansion of political interrelations around the world. Cultural globalization shows the multidirectional movements of human beings while evaluating the role media plays in shaping changing identities and ideas. Ecological globalization covers population growth, access to food, worldwide reduction in biodiversity, human-induced climate change and global environmental degradation.

There are two aspects of globalization. The first covers the things that bring people closer together in some way, such as trade, investment, technology, cross-border production systems, flows of information and communication. The second aspect of globalization covers issues that deal with policies at both the national and international level. These include trade and capital market liberalization, international standards for labour, corporate behaviour and agreements on intellectual property rights. Policy choices help determine the extent of globalization, because globalization is a trend based on policy. Technological advances also play a role in the extent of globalization, because technology widens the range of policy choices that are available. There is also concern regarding the impact globalization has on employment, working conditions, income and social protection in addition to social issues, such as security, culture, identity, inclusion or exclusion and levels of cohesion among families and in communities.