Temperament refers to a set of innate or inborn traits that organize a child's approach to the world, while personality is what arises within the individual. Personality is acquired on top of the temperament. Temperament can be viewed as an artist's canvas while personality can be viewed as the painting on the canvas.Continue Reading
Psychologists conclude that people can be categorized into four basic types of temperament: sanguine, choleric, melancholy and phlegmatic. Two of the basic temperament types are more introverted or inward-directed and the other two are extroverted or outgoing. Personality, which stays constant all through a person's life, consists of certain characteristic patterns like thoughts, feelings and behavior.
Since it is naturally occurring, temperament cannot be taught or learned but, despite this fact, it can be nurtured as one grows. Parents have an important role in nurturing the temperament of their child from infancy. Personality is also developed over a long period of time and is affected by factors like socialization, education and different pressures in life.
Understanding temperament equips people to successfully handle interpersonal relationships. Studying one's own temperament helps establish personal weaknesses and strengths. Studying other peoples' temperaments allows individuals to adapt their communication skills to others.Learn more about Psychology
The debate in psychology over stability versus change centers on the permanence of initial personality traits. Some developmental psychologists argue that personality traits seen in infancy persist through a person's entire life, while others disagree.Full Answer >
Antisocial personality traits, as seen in a narcissist or psychopath, can first manifest in childhood. Symptoms include cruelty to animals, bullying behavior, social isolation, impulsiveness and explosions of anger. Antisocial traits are fully realized for individuals by age 20 or 30, according to Mayo Clinic.Full Answer >
Many psychologists posit that there are five categories of major personality traits: extraversion, openness, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism, reports About.com. Studies find that these traits are universal across many cultures and rooted in biology. Although people face diverse situations, they usually respond according to their basic underlying personality traits.Full Answer >
Some personality traits connected to birth order include firstborn children tend to be reliable and high achievers while middle children thrive on friendships and tend to act as peacemakers. Youngest children, who are typically outgoing, often behave in ways that seek attention from others, while only children often possess leadership qualities.Full Answer >