What Causes Low Hemoglobin Levels?

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Low hemoglobin counts may be linked to certain diseases and conditions such as cancer, cirrhosis, hypothyroidism, iron deficiency anemia, kidney disease, leukemia and certain medications. Additional causes may include an enlarged spleen, vasculitis and blood loss resulting from a wound, bleeding in the digestive or urinary tract, nosebleeds, heavy menstrual periods and frequent blood donation.