The causes of giftedness in children are unknown, but can be categorized into nature, nurture or both, according to Brainy Child. Experts largely agree that both genetics and environment may play a role in giftedness, and the cause and manifestation can vary from one child to another.
Children are considered to be gifted if they can perform at a significantly higher level in a certain area than children of the same age, states Parenting and Child Health.
Some researchers have suggested that childhood giftedness is innate, according to Brainy Child. This theory proposes that regardless of the environment in which the gifted child is raised, his gifts eventually surface. One example of this theory at work is a child who is highly musically gifted but wasn't raised in a family with musical inclinations. Brainy Child explains that some studies have shown that differentiated frontal lobes may be responsible for children with natural mathematical giftedness.
Others claim that giftedness is developed through a combination of natural ability and nurture, according to the Women and Children's Health Network. A child may be gifted in one area and not another. Early identification of giftedness may play a role in whether the child continues to develop his natural gifts or fails to put them to use.
Nurture is at least responsible for the proper development of gifted children, who have specific learning needs within the classroom, according to the National Association for Gifted Children.