Causes of a brain bleed include high blood pressure, blood vessels abnormalities, liver disease and amyloid angiopathy, which is an abnormality of blood vessel walls, according to WebMD. Risk factors increase with hypertension and aging. Brain bleeding, called hemorrhage, irritates the brain tissues, causing swelling and increased pressure in the brain, killing brain cells due to a reduction in blood flow.
An elevated blood pressure is the primary cause of a brain bleed, weakening the arterial walls, leading to rupture, states MedicineNet. Blood can then form in the brain, causing a stroke. A person can be born with arteriovenous malformations, which is an abnormal connection between veins and arteries, causing a blood bleed in the future. Formation of protein deposits in the blood vessels can weaken the walls of these vessels, causing hemorrhage. This condition also results from using drugs, such as cocaine, and formation of cancerous cells in the brain.
Symptoms of a brain bleed include a sudden severe headache, loss of consciousness, decreased alertness, and difficulty in speaking, writing or swallowing, explains WebMD. Patients can minimize the risk of hemorrhage by controlling high blood pressure through exercise, a healthy diet and medication. Other preventive measures include quitting smoking and drug use, as well as careful driving and wearing seat belts.