Another name for the Ten Commandments is the "Decalogue." This literally means "10 words" and more specifically refers to those 10 words revealed directly by God to his followers.
They are also sometimes referred to as "the Testimony" and are the commandments as inscribed by God on two tablets that were housed in the Ark of the Covenant.
The Hebrew name used in Exodus is transliterated as "aseret ha-devarim," which means the 10 words or utterances.
Although there are 10 commandments, Jesus, when asked, stated that the most important of all was to "love the Lord your God with all your heart."