The peak time for Canadian geese migration is fall, during the months of September and October when the birds typically relocate from northern regions of North America, such as Canada and the northern half of the United States. They move further south, following four migration corridors: the Atlantic, Mississippi and Central and Pacific flyways to end their journey in the southern temperate areas of the United States and even Mexico, where they can winter.
The migratory patterns are marked by specific geographical features that the geese follow such as coastlines, rivers and mountains. If the climate stays warm and waters don’t freeze for long periods, Canadian geese have no need to fly south to open waters and grasses. Instead, some establish permanent residence and stay in an area year-round.
The geese fly in V-shaped formations. Experts believe that they do so to conserve energy. The goose in front expends the most energy and splits the air currents as it flies. When it tires, it moves to the back of the formation and the next goose takes over. The geese fly both day and night. The long migration poses many dangers. Inclement weather, heavy fog and hunting threaten the safety of migrating geese. Starvation and exhaustion also take a toll.