A sire is the father and a dam is the mother of a puppy or puppies. Dams give birth to a litter and a litter can range from one to several puppies.
A female dog is called a bitch and a female used for breeding is called a brood bitch. Generally, a male dog is simply referred to as a dog until he is able to sire puppies, at which time he is called a stud dog.
After birth, dogs are considered puppies until they reach 12 months of age at which time they become adult dogs.
In 2004, Tia, a Neopolitan mastiff, gave birth to 24 puppies in the U.K, and she holds the Guinness World Record for the largest litter of puppies ever born. One puppy was stillborn and three died within the first week. The sire of the litter was a Neopolitan named Caesar.