All known species of penguins live naturally in the southern hemisphere of the world. They actually occupy habitats which are located on each of the five continents within the southern hemisphere.
Antarctica, which is known for its cold and icy temperature, is home to some of the largest and most famous species of penguins, such as the Emperor penguin. Contrary to popular belief, penguins do not occupy the northern or southern poles themselves. The majority of penguins prefer colder climates, but there are some species who opt for a slightly warmer climate. The Galapagos penguin resides far north near the Galapagos Islands, which are located near the equator. They survive in this warmer climate with the help of the cold waters of the Humboldt current. Since penguins are not able to fly in order to escape predators, they tend to live on islands and continental areas which are free from a large number of land predators. Antarctica is home to five breeding species of penguins. Other penguin habitations include Northern Chile, Peru, Southern Chile, Argentina, Namibia, Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Other places around the world where penguins live include the Kerguelen Islands, Falkland Islands, Bouvetoya and the South Sandwich Islands.