Common causes of hypochloremia, or low chloride levels, include congestive heart failure, dehydration, excessive sweating and dehydration. Hyponatremia, or low sodium levels in the blood or urine, can occur as a result of diet, congestive heart failure and diarrhea, as reported by MedlinePlus.
Normal chloride levels for an adult are between 96 to 106 mEq/L in the blood and between 140 to 250 mEq/L per day in the urine, according to WebMD. A patient whose chloride levels fall below this range may have a medical condition that causes fluids to build up within the body, such as Alzheimer's disease or Addison's disease. Low chloride levels can also indicate that blood pH is higher than normal, a condition called metabolic alkalosis.
Sodium plays an important part in the body's ability to maintain its fluid and electrolyte balance, making it essential to nerve and muscle function, explains WebMD. Sodium levels below the normal range of 136 to 145 mEq/L may indicate that the thyroid or adrenal glands are not functioning properly, or that the patient has kidney failure or cystic fibrosis. Patients who take certain types of diuretic medication may also develop hyponatremia, notes MedlinePlus. Others experience low sodium levels as a result of drinking too much water.