Swelling at the submental node is often a sign of disease and can be caused by numerous factors like an infected wisdom tooth, oral cancer, a tooth abscess, oral infections, lymphadenopathy, leukemia, lymphoma, swollen lymph nodes and may also be a result of metastasis of cancer, as reported by Right Diagnosis. The submental nodes are a part of the lymph immune system, and are situated right below the chin. These nodes are responsible for fighting off infections with the white blood cells that they contain and acting as a filter for removing potentially pathogenic microbial agents from the lymphatic system, so that it cannot be distributed throughout the body.
Swollen submental lymph nodes are also commonly associated with additional symptoms like fatigue, fever, weight loss, tooth pain, enlarged or tender lymph nodes, edema, night sweats and mouth pain.
Submental lymph nodes contain sinuses, germinal centers, scavenger cells, reticular fibers and trabeculae. The node is made from lymphatic tissues that have been enclosed by a capsule made from fibrous tissues. These nodes are positioned to intersect many organs, and as a result are one of the first nodes to swell when a patient is ill. The swelling indicates that the immune system is fighting off the infection, whether it be bacterial or viral.