Sharp pain in the collarbone could be caused by conditions such as a frozen shoulder, a cervical rib, a fracture of the clavicle, a dislocated shoulder or a rotator cuff disorder, according to HealthGrades. Shoulder instability and arthritis could also cause sharp collarbone pain.
Complications with diabetes may also cause sharp pains that are constant or chronic depending on the severity of the condition, according to HealthGrades. A fracture, dislocation or rotator cuff disorder may be caused by injury or prolonged exercise or activity. Some individuals experience constant collarbone pain, movement restrictions, nerve symptoms and recurring pain on one side.
Another potential cause of sharp pain in the collarbone is bursitis, a condition where the bursae near the shoulder are inflamed and unable to reduce friction where skin, muscle tissues and tendons meet the bone, according to Healthline. As a result, the collarbone or shoulder bone is irritated during movement, causing sharp pains.
Fibromyalgia, a chronic disorder that results in pain and tender joints within the muscles and joints, can cause chronic or short-term pain in the collarbone, according to Healthline. Scar tissue that has developed within the shoulder's joints causes sharp pains near the collarbone as well. This condition, known as frozen shoulder, causes painful joint inflammation.