Wood conversion is the process where a newly felled tree is converted into workable lumber. There are many different cuts that can be used to convert a downed tree to lumber.
If the lumber is going to be used for construction, the wood is cut plain or through and through. This is less expensive to cut, and while it does produce increased chances of cupping, the wood is stronger when used properly. If the lumber is intended for decorative purposes, it is cut quartered or rift sawn. This is more expensive and produces more waste; however, the wood is much more decorative in appearance and is less prone to both cupping and expansion.