According to the Oxford Dictionary, naturalists are experts in or students of natural history. Naturalists research and observe living organisms in their own environments, such as animals and plants. Naturalists are either professionals in their field or hobbyists.
The term "naturalists" covers a multitude of natural science careers, such as botanists, zoologists archaeologists, geologists, physiologists and palaeontologists. Professional naturalists record observed behaviors of organisms, and may publish them in the form of academic journals and articles. In contrast, hobby naturalists watch animals or plants for recreational fun. Bird watching and gardening are two common and popular pastimes for hobby naturalists.