The types of tools used by doctors in general include the stethoscope, thermometer, ophthalmoscope, sphygmomanometer, otoscope, reflex hammer and tongue depressor, according to the St. Louis Children's Hospital. Within medicine, different specialists rely on different sets of tools depending on the area of focus.
Doctors use a stethoscope to listen to a patient's heartbeat according to the St. Louis Children's Hospital. The otoscope is used to examine a patient's nose and ears, while the ophthalmoscope is used to examine the eyes. The sphygmomanometer cuff is placed around the upper arm to measure blood pressure. A thermometer is used to take a patient's temperature. A tap on the knee with a reflex hammer checks the patient's reflexes, and the tongue depressor holds down the patient's tongue so that the doctor can examine the throat.