The Case 580 backhoe series is a collection of integrated loaders that were all built and marketed by the Case construction company, beginning in 1968 with the Case 580 Construction King. Later iterations of the company's popular backhoe included the 580B, 580C, 580D, 580 Super D and 580E. Case introduced the 580K in 1987 as a completely redesigned model of the original series. The release of the 580 M series in 2001 led to prizes from Heavy Equipment News magazine.
The Case company originally manufactured the Case backhoe in order to keep up with high post-WWII demand for affordable housing for returning soldiers and their families. The Case company exclusively sold industrial tractors until the business's acquisition of Churubusco in 1957. Churubusco was perfecting an innovative hydraulically powered backhoe at the time of its sale, and Case engineers led by Elton Long were able to integrate the nascent backhoe technology into the Case company's existing products. The result of this integration was the Case 320, a precursor to the more successful 580 backhoe series.
Other backhoe models manufactured by Case that predated the 580 series included the Case 420, which was the industry's first diesel-powered loader and backhoe, and the Case 530, which pioneered the company's patented two-cylinder, double-acting swing system and hydraulic cushioning technology.