Doctors who specialize in treating the brain are called neurologists, according to Healthline. Neurologists also treat the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
Medical conditions involving the brain for which one may require a neurologist include headaches, epilepsy and encephalitis (or a swelling of the brain tissue), says Healthline. Other treatable conditions include Alzheimer's disease and Lou Gehrig's disease.
Healthline explains that a neurologist has three extra years of training in the field of the brain, spinal cord and nervous system so that he can specialize solely in conditions and defects in these areas. This extra training is as an intern in a neurology residency program.