The doctrine of the Church of Christ comes from the first century A.D. New Testament teachings of Jesus Christ, and it incorporates the 19th century teachings from the Book of Mormon. Congregations collaborated to define their beliefs and establish the doctrine of the Church of Christ in the late 1850s.
Differing interpretations of the teachings of the Bible and the Book of Mormon led to a schism that created two separate churches. Four congregations in rural Illinois formed a conference in 1853, vowing to remain true to the doctrine of the Church of Christ, while the other conference formed the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. The contemporary Church of Christ doctrine still cites teachings from the Bible and the Book of Mormon in the church's Articles of Faith and Practice.