Thyroid calcification is the formation of a lump within the thyroid gland, according to WiseGeek. The condition results from a hormonal disruption within the thyroid gland that allows for an accumulation of calcium salts, which form nodules. It is usually a benign condition that produces no symptoms other than swelling at the base of the neck. A multinodular goiter results from this condition when several lumps form, which causes impairment in hormone production and distribution.
Benign thyroid calcifications come in the form of colloids, follicular adenomas and cysts, reports WiseGeek. These nodules contain thyroid tissue and fluid, and they stay confined to the thyroid gland. Malignant thyroid calcifications contain semisolid and fluid material or just solid material.
A fine-needle aspiration test indicates whether or not a thyroid calcification is malignant, explains WiseGeek. In this test, a small needle collects a sample of cells from inside the nodule. An ultrasound monitors the needle to ensure correct placement and collection of cells. Patients with thyroid calcifications also undergo thyroid function tests to determine their levels of thyroid hormones.
Physicians provide treatment for thyroid calcifications in accordance with the nodule's type, states WiseGeek. Most of these nodules require no immediate treatment other than regular monitoring.