The first five books of the Old Testament contain at least 613 commandments, including hundreds of ceremonial or ritual as well as moral or ethical laws. The Ten Commandments found in Exodus 20 are widely understood to be the key summaries of the moral laws of God.
Of the 613 commandments in the Old Testament, many are ritual or ceremonial or dietary. The list also includes what may be considered civil statutes, addressing things such as judicial procedure about who can testify in court and certain property rights. By contrast, the Ten Commandments set out the basic laws for mankind's relationship to God by recognizing there is only one God, worshipping no other gods, and keeping the Sabbath day to honor God. They also set out the essence of mankind's duties to fellow humans and include a command to honor one's father and mother, and prohibitions against murder, adultery, stealing, giving false testimony and coveting.
When asked what the greatest commandment was, Jesus Christ summarized and affirmed the Ten Commandments by stating that the greatest commandments are to love God and to love your neighbor. Many other New Testament passages individually restate and affirm the Ten Commandments.