Symptoms of stent failure include decreased blood flow and a narrowed artery, which mimics the initial symptoms of the blocked artery such as sweating, weakness, nausea, dizziness, chest pain, heart palpitations and shortness of breath, according to WebMD. Placing stents in a patient carries a risk of complications such as an infection, allergic reaction, kidney damage due to the procedure dye, arrhythmias, blood vessel damage due to the catheter and bleeding from the catheter site, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute.
When a stent failure occurs, it means that the stent has narrowed the artery once again and is called restenosis. In this case, doctors will try to determine if the stent did not expand properly or if it was not placed in the correct location, according to the Cleveland Clinic. Doctors will then surgically enter and re-expand the stent or re-place it. However, if the stent failure is not due to a lack of expansion or a lack of correct placement, the doctor will need to try treatments such as drug-eluting stents, brachytherapy, drug-coated balloons, supplementary medications or bypass surgery.
Lifestyle changes can also help make the stent procedure and treatments more successful. Adopting a heart-healthy diet, participating in cardiac rehabilitation, quitting smoking, exercising on a regular basis, maintaining a healthy weight and controlling diabetes can all make a difference in treatment.