The 10 Commandments are found in the Old Testament section of the Bible. They are first listed in the book of Exodus in chapter 20 and then again in the book of Deuteronomy in chapter five.
The 10 Commandments were given to the children of Israel when they had come into the Sinai desert on their way to the promised land after escaping slavery in Egypt. The people were camped in front of Mount Sinai when God called Moses to the mountain. The Bible explains that God told him to prepare the people and to tell them that he was going to come down onto the mountain after three days.
On the third day, there was a thick cloud on the mountain, thunder and lightening and a very loud sound of the trumpet. Moses brought the people out and stood at the bottom of the mountain. But the people were afraid and went back and stood far away and sent Moses to speak with God. Moses went into the thick darkness on the mountain, where God gave him the 10 Commandments, written with the finger of God, as recorded in chapters 19, 20 and 31 of the book of Exodus.
Moses was on the mountain for 40 days and nights and when he came down he saw that the children of Israel were worshipping a golden calf. Moses got so angry that he broke the two tablets of stone on which God had written the 10 Commandments. God again wrote this and gave it to Moses a short while later. The 10 Commandments are again mentioned in Deuteronomy chapter 5 when Moses speaks of them to the children of Israel just before they enter the promised land.