Jeremiah 33 continues the story of the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem and the role Jeremiah plays as a prophet for the Jewish people. In particular, Jeremiah receives a promise from God that the destruction of the city and the resulting displacement and enslavement of the Jewish people is not permanent.
In the text, Jeremiah is found alone in a guarded courtyard when the voice of God returns to him for a second time. God tells Jeremiah that he will not intervene in the destruction of the city and that said destruction is in large part a punishment for the transgressions of the Jewish people towards him. However, God promises that a time of healing awaits, when the Davidic kingdom is restored and joy and prosperity return.
Thus, Jeremiah 33 is a passage referred to as a "promise of restoration," an foreshadowing to the eventual end of the Babylonian captivity and the building of the Second Temple. Furthermore, the restoration of the Davidic kingdom in Jewish theology heralds the coming of the Messiah, the figure who signals the reconciliation of all people to the God of Israel. In Christian thought, such Messianic ideas anticipate Jesus as the heir of David and the rebuilt kingdom as established through his ministry, death and resurrection. In general terms, such passages as Jeremiah 33 stand as Biblical assertions of God's providential role in history and in the history of the Jewish nation especially.