According to Issues of India, India faces a number of problems, including an unfinished attempt at national integration. This helps to foster a divide among people who may be geographically close but know very little of one another.
India was in a state of chaos after the British abandoned their 190-year-old occupation of the country. Sardar Patel helped to unify many under the banner of a democratic India, but areas such as Kashmir remain disputed by both India and Pakistan. Pakistan sometimes uses Kashmir to create political issues and unrest for India.
Another problematic effect of sudden British withdrawal was that North Indians and South Indians knew very little of one another. Differences among northern and eastern Indians remain as well despite the economic advances that would typically ease such a cultural gap.
India also faces political unrest in the form of the Naxal movement. This movement is comprised of those who lived in outlying areas of India during British rule. The British left them alone and unprotected during their occupation and so did later Indian rulers, leaving these individuals feeling abandoned and betrayed by the state that they now wish to radically alter.
One of India's greatest problems is the large number of violent Maoists in nearly a third of India's districts. Like the Naxals, Maoists are comprised of angry dissidents who feel neglected by their government, and their territory has been growing for over two decades.