Martin Luther's 95 Theses were written in 1517 and infamously nailed to the door of the Wittenburg Castle church on October 31. Another name for the 95 theses is Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences. With is document, Martin Luther laid the foundation for what is now known as the Protestant Reformation.
The 95 theses was a list of questions and propositions for the Catholic Church on the practice of indulgences. At this time, the Catholic Church collected indulgences from its patrons, which were monetary sums said to absolve sinners of their sins. Martin Luther believed this practice was corrupt and immoral.
The basic concept of the first two theses of the 95 Theses was that only faith in God could lead people to salvation, paying indulgences to the Catholic Church would not. Martin Luther also criticized the Pope's spending on the basilica of Saint Peter because he believed that is money would be better used serving the poor. Copies of the 95 theses were distributed all throughout Europe.
In 1518, the Pope of the Catholic Church condemned what Martin Luther had written in the 95 Theses and labeled the writing as heresy. In 1521, Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Catholic Church. Martin Luther spent the next ten years translating the New Testament in German so that it could be read by common people in Germany.