Logic is defined in the field of philosophy as the study of valid reasoning. It is usually further divided into three subtypes of logical reasoning: inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning and abductive reasoning.
Each of the three subtypes of logical reasoning utilizes a different method to make valid inferences. Inductive reasoning focuses on drawing conclusions through physical observations, such as noting that gravity must be a true principle because any object thrown up must come back down. Deductive reasoning involves finding necessary truths from direct statements, such as inferring that all bachelors are unmarried, therefore an unmarried man is a bachelor. Finally, abductive reasoning uses possible circumstances to infer a possible truth, such as observing that rain makes grass wet, and if the grass is wet, it may have rained earlier.