In general, a neurologist or neurosurgeon treats vagus nerve disorders, according to the University of California San Francisco Medical Center. The purpose of the treatment, called vagal nerve stimulation, is often to reduce incidents of seizures.
Vagal nerve stimulation is also sometimes a treatment for depression, says WebMD. In these cases, the neurosurgeon implants a battery-powered device similar to a pacemaker in the body and attaches it to a stimulating wire threaded along the vagus nerve. Impulses delivered to the nerve then travel to the mood-regulating centers of the brain, possibly altering its chemical makeup. The physician regulates the electric impulses as needed.