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# Which of the following is an example of false cause and effect?

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One example of false cause and effect is using the scientific observation that increased temperature correlates with increased pressure to make the assumption that temperature causes pressure. Another example is observing that the speed of a windmill is faster when the wind is faster and assuming that the windmill is the cause of the faster wind.

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Types of false cause and effect typically fall into three categories: reverse causation, bidirectional causation and the common-causal variable. Reverse causation refers to noting two related events, A and B, where A causes B but a person assumes that B is causing A. For example, noting that a hot oven contains hot food can lead to the incorrect assumption that the hot food caused the oven to become hot, rather than that the hot oven caused the food to become hot.

The bidirectional causation logical fallacy occurs when both A causes B and B causes A, but the assumption of effect is that only A causes B or only B causes A. In the common-causal variable of false cause and effect, the relationship between A and B is assumed without considering the presence of a third variable. This type of fallacy is sometimes explained by the sentence, "Correlation is not equal to causation." For example, using the observation that both obesity and CO2 levels have increased since the 1950s to conclude that CO2 level increases caused the increase in obesity is a common-causal variable fallacy. A third variable may explain both increases.

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## Related Questions

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An example of a faulty causality, which is also known as a post-hoc fallacy, is arguing that the cause of something is that which preceded it, and which does not take into account any other possible causes. An argument based on a faulty causality also ignores the possibility of coincidence. An obvious example of a post-hoc fallacy would be to argue that because a rooster can be heard crowing before the sun rises, the rooster's crowing is therefore the cause of the sunrise.

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Hints of pretension often arise when the speaker makes reference to obscure or specific words or things with the unspoken assumption that the listener can recognize them, even if this is obviously not the case. To avoid appearing pretentious, strive to use simple, common terms familiar to everyone.

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The purpose of a rhetorical question is to assert or deny a point, gain agreement from an audience or person in a subtle manner or to create effect. Rhetorical questions do not require an answer. An example of a rhetorical question is, "Can't you do anything right?"