The five relationships of Confucianism are father and son, elder brother and younger brother, husband and wife, older friend and younger friend, and ruler and subject. Confucius saw these relationships as the building blocks of a civilized society. A particular set of behaviors must be maintained in each relationship, which comes from the development of deliberate traditions. Without them, he believed humans would return to anarchy.Continue Reading
According to Confucius, the first step toward building a better society was fostering lovingness, benevolence, compassion and a regard for all human life with dignity and empathy, "Jen," and providing everyone with a definitive and lasting guide, "Li," to human relationships and their importance. These relationships were based on propriety and reciprocity.
The family was the center and foundation of any society, said Confucius. The father-son relationship was based on love and nurture from the father and reverence and care in old age from the son. An elder brother should be gentle with his younger brothers and set a good precedence. Younger brothers should remain respectful. A husband provides kindness and security for a deferential wife, who listens and follows his lead.
Confucius emphasized that relationships beyond the family were just as important and had lasting effects on everyone in the kingdom. Kindness to everyone, regardless of status, nationality or race was the path of Jen, which was the only way to better one's self, family and society. The elder friend or acquaintance was considerate and trusting of the honest and respectful younger friend. Confucius affirmed that not only did subjects have a responsibility to be loyal to the ruler, but also that the ruler had a responsibility to act out of righteousness and treat his subjects with benevolence while ensuring peace and prosperity within his kingdom.Learn more about Religion
According to Yale University, the sacred texts of Confucianism are five books that legend states Confucius wrote. These books are "The Book of History," "The Book of Poetry," "The Book of Changes," "The Book of Rites," and the "Spring and Autumn Annals."Full Answer >
Confucianism has been integral to the formation of modern Chinese society by encouraging social order, respect for the elderly, the elevation of teachers, and the good of the community. Confucianism informs and influences Chinese culture comprehensively.Full Answer >
Confucianism originated with the teachings of Kong Qiu, or Confucius, a philosopher and statesman who tried to implement his teachings in government during his service within the Lu State during the Autumn and Spring period of Chinese history. The records commonly attributed to Confucius are second-hand accounts by his disciples written years after his death. Confucius' teachings gained widespread popularity due to subsequent philosophers such as Mencius and Xunzi.Full Answer >
Some of the essential beliefs of Confucianism are that people must maintain a sense of doing what is right, serve their superiors diligently and loyally, display benevolence towards others and that an ideal ruler should influence others by moral example. Confucianism holds to a humanistic outlook in which the secular is sacred. People are expected to perform and adhere to specific rules and rituals based on societal hierarchy in their interactions with each other.Full Answer >