Psychology

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Individuals who suffer from a lack of sleep may be more irritable, short-tempered and vulnerable to stress. Anger, stress, sadness and mental exhaustion can accompany even small amounts of sleep deprivation.

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  • What Is a Type B Personality?

    Q: What Is a Type B Personality?

    A: In contemporary personality theories, a "Type B personality" means someone is generally laid back and steady in performance. The "Type B" is often simply viewed as a counter to the popular "Type A personality," which describes a person who is intense and accomplishment-driven.
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  • What Is the Stroop Effect?

    Q: What Is the Stroop Effect?

    A: The Stroop effect is an increase in reaction time for a given task, when the brain simultaneously deals with conflicting information. The Stroop test, in which subjects need to name the color of the ink of the given word regardless of the word’s actual meaning, studies this phenomenon.
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  • Why Do People Explore?

    Q: Why Do People Explore?

    A: According to NASA, humans explore because of an innate desire to learn the world around them. The urge to explore was ingrained in the psyche so that human ancestors could find places that were abundant in food, water and other resources necessary for survival. This primordial desire to explore the world around them might be what continues to lead humanity to venture out and explore even today.
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  • What Is a Fixed-Ratio Schedule?

    Q: What Is a Fixed-Ratio Schedule?

    A: A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is only reinforced upon a specified number of responses. Generally, it is a rule indicating behavior instances to be reinforced. This schedule yields a high, stable responding rate with only a brief break after the enforcer’s delivery.
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  • What Are Examples of Mob Mentality?

    Q: What Are Examples of Mob Mentality?

    A: Mob mentality is a phenomenon in which people follow the actions and behaviors of their peers when in large groups. Examples of mob mentality include stock market bubbles and crashes, superstitions and rioting at sporting events. Historical examples of mob mentality include the Holocaust and the Salem Witch Trials.
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  • How Many Decisions Do Humans Make Each Day?

    Q: How Many Decisions Do Humans Make Each Day?

    A: Each individual is different, so it is impossible to pinpoint a specific number of daily decisions that applies to every individual, but Time magazine puts the number in the thousands. Decision making is executed on extremely small to large scale.
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  • What Is the Meaning of Group Dynamics?

    Q: What Is the Meaning of Group Dynamics?

    A: Group dynamics is the behaviors and mental processes that happen in or between groups of people. Group dynamics is studied in many fields including psychology, anthropology and political science.
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  • What's the Average Person's Attention Span?

    Q: What's the Average Person's Attention Span?

    A: According to a 2015 Canadian study in partnership with Microsoft, humans now have a shorter attention span than goldfish: 8 seconds. In 2000, the human attention span was nearly 12 seconds. The experiment found that an increasingly digital lifestyle has helped most people multitask, but it has taken a toll on everyone's ability to focus on one thing at a time.
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  • What Is the Definition of "emotional Stability"?

    Q: What Is the Definition of "emotional Stability"?

    A: "Emotional stability" refers to a person's ability to remain calm or even keel when faced with pressure or stress. Someone who is emotionally unstable is more volatile, which means the person faces an increased risk of reacting with violent or harmful behaviors when provoked.
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  • What Is Effective Communication?

    Q: What Is Effective Communication?

    A: Effective communication is communication that is clearly and successfully delivered, received and understood. Learning the skills of effective communication can help people to resolve differences while building trust and respect.
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  • Does Listening to Music Actually Make You Smarter?

    Q: Does Listening to Music Actually Make You Smarter?

    A: While you may commend Baby Einstein for making you into the genius you are, you're the one who deserves all the credit. There's no science to fully back up the claim that listening to music makes you smarter.
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  • What Is Typical Immature Behavior?

    Q: What Is Typical Immature Behavior?

    A: Typical immature behavior in children, teens and adults is conduct that tends to portray an individual as younger than his or her true age. Characteristics may include chronically making self-centered choices, inability to think and reason independently, demanding a great deal of attention and exhibiting "baby" traits, such as crying and pouting.
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  • What Is It Called When You Believe Your Own Lies?

    Q: What Is It Called When You Believe Your Own Lies?

    A: According to a scholarly article in the Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, there is some indication that pathological liars believe their own lies to the extent of delusion. The claim remains controversial among psychiatrists. Pathological lying is also called mythomania or pseudologia fantastica.
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  • What Is Human Emotional Development?

    Q: What Is Human Emotional Development?

    A: Development continues throughout the human lifespan. Areas of change include physical, intellectual, social and emotional. Emotional development is considered briefly below.
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  • Who Was Henry Goddard?

    Q: Who Was Henry Goddard?

    A: Henry Goddard was a psychologist who was an advocate for intelligence testing and introduced the Binet Intelligence Test to the United States in 1908. While his research led to the development of special education programs for the mentally disabled and the concept of diminished capacity in legal trials, it also fueled the eugenics and scientific racism movements.
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  • Why Do We Laugh?

    Q: Why Do We Laugh?

    A: Research has shown that laughing has a definite social function, but it also may serve an evolutionary function as a way of demonstrating harmless playfulness to other humans, showing that we are intending to be friendly rather than threatening. Human beings aren't the only animals that laugh; apes are also known to laugh, particularly in conditions that also cause humans to laugh, such as a response to being tickled and a vocalization during play. People tend to laugh mostly when they are around other people, though some people may occasionally laugh out loud while they are alone, and laughter is such a big part of human vocalization that most people have different laughs that they use in different situations.
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  • What Are the Three Types of Symbiosis?

    Q: What Are the Three Types of Symbiosis?

    A: The three types of symbiosis are mutualism, parasitism and commensalism. Symbiosis is the close relationship between two or more different species.
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  • What Are the Symptoms of a Midlife Crisis?

    Q: What Are the Symptoms of a Midlife Crisis?

    A: Symptoms of a midlife crisis include feelings of depression, inability to make decisions about the future, anger or blame towards a partner, need for adventure or change, and loss of interest in important aspects of life. When a person is experiencing a midlife crisis, there is a drastic change in behavior. The person appears unhappy, appears depressed or unexpectedly wants a new life.
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  • What Are the Branches of Psychology?

    Q: What Are the Branches of Psychology?

    A: The branches, or sub-fields, of psychology are clinical psychology; counseling; cognitive, perceptual developmental, educational, engineering, evolutionary, experimental, forensic and health psychology; industrial and organizational psychology; neuro- and behavioral psychology; quantitative, school, social, sports and rehabilitation psychology. Some include the categories of abnormal, comparative, cross-cultural, personality and bio-psychology as sub-fields.
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  • What Are Perceptual Distortions?

    Q: What Are Perceptual Distortions?

    A: Perceptual distortions are incorrect understandings or abnormal interpretations of a perceptual experience. A perceptual distortion occurs when a person's response to stimuli varies from how it is commonly perceived. Perceptual distortions can relate to either sensory or psychological perception and can occur as a result of cognitive bias, psychological disorders, medication or drugs, or physical damage to the brain or sensory organs.
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  • What Are Interpersonal Skills?

    Q: What Are Interpersonal Skills?

    A: Interpersonal skills are often called "people skills" because they describe a person's ability to interact with other people in a positive and cooperative manner. Unlike technical skills that people attend school for, interpersonal skills are considered soft skills that are typically developed over time through interactions.
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