Psychology

A:

A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is only reinforced upon a specified number of responses. Generally, it is a rule indicating behavior instances to be reinforced. This schedule yields a high, stable responding rate with only a brief break after the enforcer’s delivery.

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  • What is irreversibility in psychology?

    Q: What is irreversibility in psychology?

    A: Irreversibility is one of the characteristics of behaviorist Jean Piaget's preoperational stage of his theory of child development. It refers to the inability of the child at this stage to understand that actions, when done, can be undone to return to the original state. Thus, the child cannot use this understanding to solve problems.
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  • What is the Machiavellian theory?

    Q: What is the Machiavellian theory?

    A: The Machiavellian theory, or the Machiavellian intelligence theory, is a social theory that hypothesizes that the increase in brain size during human evolution from primates occurred due to humans working in groups. This group work in turn causes humans and primates to think about complex issues and relationships.
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  • What are the different types of identity?

    Q: What are the different types of identity?

    A: People construct their identity through internal processes or by belonging to a group, and combined with a person's preference to a type of control, they can be defined by four distinct identity types: leader, follower, independent and drifter. In the general field of social sciences, identity can be more loosely defined as how someone perceives themselves and how they are perceived within a group or affiliation.
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  • Why are friends so important?

    Q: Why are friends so important?

    A: Friends are important because they bring companionship, support and enrichment to life. They are also needed for survival, notes the Mayo Clinic, as people who have friends are generally healthier and enjoy a better quality of life.
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  • What are the three types of symbiosis?

    Q: What are the three types of symbiosis?

    A: The three types of symbiosis are mutualism, parasitism and commensalism. Symbiosis is the close relationship between two or more different species.
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  • How long does it take to create a habit?

    Q: How long does it take to create a habit?

    A: Creating a new habit can take anywhere between 18 and 254 days. Based on a study conducted by Phillippa Lally, a health psychology researcher at University College London, published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, it takes two to eight months before a person can form a habit and automatically do something. Forming a new habit depends on the person, his behavior and his circumstances.
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  • What's the average person's attention span?

    Q: What's the average person's attention span?

    A: According to a 2015 Canadian study in partnership with Microsoft, humans now have a shorter attention span than goldfish: 8 seconds. In 2000, the human attention span was nearly 12 seconds. The experiment found that an increasingly digital lifestyle has helped most people multitask, but it has taken a toll on everyone's ability to focus on one thing at a time.
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  • What's the scientifically-proven funniest joke in the world?

    Q: What's the scientifically-proven funniest joke in the world?

    A: Because humor is so incredibly subjective and variable, it may not be possible to identify a single joke as the absolute funniest joke known to man and science, but research has shown that some structural elements, such as brevity, tend to be more common components in jokes that are more widely found to be funny. Factors such as nationality or other cultural identity, language, age, gender and education level can all have a profound effect on what a person finds funny. Additionally, because so many jokes rely on cultural hallmarks that are not likely to be universally understood, it may be next to impossible to identify or develop one joke that all humans will be able to find funny.
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  • What is interpersonal behavior?

    Q: What is interpersonal behavior?

    A: Interpersonal behavior is the behavior and actions that are present in human relationships. The way in which people communicate, and all that this entails, is considered interpersonal behavior.
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  • What is the stability versus change debate in psychology?

    Q: What is the stability versus change debate in psychology?

    A: The debate in psychology over stability versus change centers on the permanence of initial personality traits. Some developmental psychologists argue that personality traits seen in infancy persist through a person's entire life, while others disagree.
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  • What are interpersonal skills?

    Q: What are interpersonal skills?

    A: Interpersonal skills are often called "people skills" because they describe a person's ability to interact with other people in a positive and cooperative manner. Unlike technical skills that people attend school for, interpersonal skills are considered soft skills that are typically developed over time through interactions.
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  • Why do we laugh?

    Q: Why do we laugh?

    A: Research has shown that laughing has a definite social function, but it also may serve an evolutionary function as a way of demonstrating harmless playfulness to other humans, showing that we are intending to be friendly rather than threatening. Human beings aren't the only animals that laugh; apes are also known to laugh, particularly in conditions that also cause humans to laugh, such as a response to being tickled and a vocalization during play. People tend to laugh mostly when they are around other people, though some people may occasionally laugh out loud while they are alone, and laughter is such a big part of human vocalization that most people have different laughs that they use in different situations.
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  • What are Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?

    Q: What are Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development?

    A: Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development, first published in the 1950s, include trust versus mistrust, autonomy versus doubt, initiative versus guilt, competence versus inferiority, identity versus role confusion, intimacy versus isolation, generativity versus stagnation, and integrity versus despair. These stages begin at birth and continue until advanced age and death. Five stages occur before the age of 18.
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  • What is the difference between nature and nurture?

    Q: What is the difference between nature and nurture?

    A: Nature refers to traits and characteristics that are inherited or genetic in origin, while nurture refers to traits and qualities that are learned by organisms as they grow. The terms "nature" and "nurture" consist of many different subcategories in the field of psychology. These categories fall under several different approaches and theories, which work together to describe the complex characteristics of humans and animals.
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  • Why do we need psychology?

    Q: Why do we need psychology?

    A: The world needs psychology because it allows people to better understand how the mind works. Having this understanding allows mental illnesses to be better diagnosed and managed, helps people manage their relationships with those around them, encourages those with depression or anxiety to take steps to improve their conditions, and promotes an overall healthier mental state.
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  • What are examples of learned behavior?

    Q: What are examples of learned behavior?

    A: Some examples of learned behavior are a dog that is taught to roll over or a recently hatched goose that imprints on something other than its mother. Learned behavior is shaped through experience, such as through the application of rewards, punishments or constant conditioning.
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  • Why is courage important?

    Q: Why is courage important?

    A: Courage is important because it allows people to develop a sense of leadership and confidence and provides benefits for businesses, through fearless, more productive employees. Courage is regarded as an admirable personal trait, providing benefits for people personally, socially and professionally. Courage is one of the most valued and admired traits among business leaders and is a key characteristic of many leaders.
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  • How do you learn to be funny?

    Q: How do you learn to be funny?

    A: There is evidence to suggest that comedy is a skill that can be gained or honed through practice; doing things like taking classes or studying advice from famous comedians may help a person become more humorous. It may be possible to find a professional stand-up or improv comic who teaches workshops or clinics on comedy, allowing individuals to hone their skills in a group setting through hands-on learning. Additionally, books on the subject are available for those who want additional information or prefer to study on their own.
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  • What is social play for children?

    Q: What is social play for children?

    A: During social play, children progress through social stages by interacting with other children in recreational and learning activities. The goal of social play is to progress toward and master cooperative play. Children first observe other children then play alone before moving to the stages involving parallel and cooperative play.
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  • What is synchrony in child development?

    Q: What is synchrony in child development?

    A: The technical definition of synchrony is "a co-ordinated interaction between caregiver and infant, who respond to each other with split-second timing." The caregiver, whether it is mother or father, can react to a baby's emotion instinctively. The baby feels the connection between facial expressions and emotions and synchrony between caregiver and child is achieved.
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  • What are conceptual skills?

    Q: What are conceptual skills?

    A: Conceptual skills are skills that allow a person to think creatively while also understanding abstract ideas and complicated processes. A person who has conceptual skills will be able to solve problems, formulate processes and understand the relationship between ideas, concepts, patterns and symbols.
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