Psychology

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Individuals who suffer from a lack of sleep may be more irritable, short-tempered and vulnerable to stress. Anger, stress, sadness and mental exhaustion can accompany even small amounts of sleep deprivation.

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  • What are the different types of identity?

    Q: What are the different types of identity?

    A: People construct their identity through internal processes or by belonging to a group, and combined with a person's preference to a type of control, they can be defined by four distinct identity types: leader, follower, independent and drifter. In the general field of social sciences, identity can be more loosely defined as how someone perceives themselves and how they are perceived within a group or affiliation.
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  • What is a fixed-ratio schedule?

    Q: What is a fixed-ratio schedule?

    A: A fixed-ratio schedule is a schedule of reinforcement where a response is only reinforced upon a specified number of responses. Generally, it is a rule indicating behavior instances to be reinforced. This schedule yields a high, stable responding rate with only a brief break after the enforcer’s delivery.
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  • What is the definition of "emotional stability"?

    Q: What is the definition of "emotional stability"?

    A: "Emotional stability" refers to a person's ability to remain calm or even keel when faced with pressure or stress. Someone who is emotionally unstable is more volatile, which means the person faces an increased risk of reacting with violent or harmful behaviors when provoked.
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  • What is hypnosis?

    Q: What is hypnosis?

    A: Hypnosis is a process that results in a person being in a trance-like state of highly focused attention. This is often used in stage shows to get people to do ridiculous things, but it also has therapeutic benefits such as reducing pain.
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  • What is reaction range in psychology?

    Q: What is reaction range in psychology?

    A: Reaction range in psychology refers to how people have different reactions and attributes, although they may have had the same stimuli and environment as others. For example, two twins can grow up in the same environment, yet their IQs can be vastly different.
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  • What is "team identity"?

    Q: What is "team identity"?

    A: Team identity refers to the phenomena of individual team members who feel a positive attitude towards, and identify with, their team. When team members achieve team identity, they put the needs of the team before their own.
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  • Is there a formula to humor?

    Q: Is there a formula to humor?

    A: Though there may be some point in time when scientists finally crack the humor code and come up with an exact formula for how to be funny, this is an intellectual challenge that has yet to be conquered as of 2014. There is no universally accepted way to be funny, and while some people are considered funnier than others in certain contexts, there's no real way to codify why that is or explain specific details of those individuals' success. There are certain broad areas, such as slapstick and other physical comedy bits, that can be identified as generally funny, but a pie-in-the face routine isn't likely to garner many laughs in a somber situation such as a funeral.
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  • Why do we laugh?

    Q: Why do we laugh?

    A: Research has shown that laughing has a definite social function, but it also may serve an evolutionary function as a way of demonstrating harmless playfulness to other humans, showing that we are intending to be friendly rather than threatening. Human beings aren't the only animals that laugh; apes are also known to laugh, particularly in conditions that also cause humans to laugh, such as a response to being tickled and a vocalization during play. People tend to laugh mostly when they are around other people, though some people may occasionally laugh out loud while they are alone, and laughter is such a big part of human vocalization that most people have different laughs that they use in different situations.
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  • What is an absolute threshold in psychology?

    Q: What is an absolute threshold in psychology?

    A: In psychology, absolute threshold is the smallest amount of intensity from a stimulus that is detected by a person's senses. These senses include vision, hearing, taste, touch and smell.
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  • What is formal and informal observation?

    Q: What is formal and informal observation?

    A: Formal observation refers to the precise, highly controlled methods that take place in a laboratory setting, while informal observation is a more casual observation of the surrounding environment. Anthropologists and others in the soft sciences often make use of informal observation, while hard sciences generally require more stringent methods of empirical assessment.
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  • What is charismatic leadership?

    Q: What is charismatic leadership?

    A: Charismatic leadership is the process of encouraging certain behaviors in others via force of personality, persuasion and eloquent communication. Charismatic leaders inspire their followers to do things or to do things better; this is done by conjuring up enthusiasm in others for a stated vision or goal.
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  • What is it called when you believe your own lies?

    Q: What is it called when you believe your own lies?

    A: According to a scholarly article in the Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, there is some indication that pathological liars believe their own lies to the extent of delusion. The claim remains controversial among psychiatrists. Pathological lying is also called mythomania or pseudologia fantastica.
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  • What is the definition of cognitive complexity?

    Q: What is the definition of cognitive complexity?

    A: Cognitive complexity is the psychological characteristic or variable that shows how complex or simple the frame and perceptual skill of a person are. It is the extent to which a person differentiates and integrates an event. A person who measures highly on cognitive complexity tends to observe gradations and subtle differences while persons with a less complex cognitive structure for the task does not.
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  • What are the steps of grief?

    Q: What are the steps of grief?

    A: The stages of grief are denial, anger, bargaining, depression and acceptance. The stages may not occur in order, and the stages can last for months or years after the loss.
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  • How do you learn to be funny?

    Q: How do you learn to be funny?

    A: There is evidence to suggest that comedy is a skill that can be gained or honed through practice; doing things like taking classes or studying advice from famous comedians may help a person become more humorous. It may be possible to find a professional stand-up or improv comic who teaches workshops or clinics on comedy, allowing individuals to hone their skills in a group setting through hands-on learning. Additionally, books on the subject are available for those who want additional information or prefer to study on their own.
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  • What are the three types of symbiosis?

    Q: What are the three types of symbiosis?

    A: The three types of symbiosis are mutualism, parasitism and commensalism. Symbiosis is the close relationship between two or more different species.
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  • What is the availability heuristic in psychology?

    Q: What is the availability heuristic in psychology?

    A: The availability heuristic refers to the tendency of the human mind to assume that events that spring easily to mind happen with equal frequency in the real world. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts used by the brain to navigate the world more efficiently.
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  • Why do we need psychology?

    Q: Why do we need psychology?

    A: The world needs psychology because it allows people to better understand how the mind works. Having this understanding allows mental illnesses to be better diagnosed and managed, helps people manage their relationships with those around them, encourages those with depression or anxiety to take steps to improve their conditions, and promotes an overall healthier mental state.
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  • What is frustration aggression theory?

    Q: What is frustration aggression theory?

    A: The frustration aggression theory is a psychological theory that aggression is caused by blocking, or frustrating, a person's efforts to achieve a goal. The theory has its origin in a 1939 hypothesis and study by Dollar, Doob, Miller, Mower and Sears.
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  • What are the branches of psychology?

    Q: What are the branches of psychology?

    A: The branches, or sub-fields, of psychology are clinical psychology; counseling; cognitive, perceptual developmental, educational, engineering, evolutionary, experimental, forensic and health psychology; industrial and organizational psychology; neuro- and behavioral psychology; quantitative, school, social, sports and rehabilitation psychology. Some include the categories of abnormal, comparative, cross-cultural, personality and bio-psychology as sub-fields.
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  • Who was Henry Goddard?

    Q: Who was Henry Goddard?

    A: Henry Goddard was a psychologist who was an advocate for intelligence testing and introduced the Binet Intelligence Test to the United States in 1908. While his research led to the development of special education programs for the mentally disabled and the concept of diminished capacity in legal trials, it also fueled the eugenics and scientific racism movements.
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