The two main types of motivation are intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation comes from something outside of oneself, while intrinsic motivation comes from within.
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can come from a very wide variety of sources, and it can be negative or positive. Doing a job well to avoid a reprimand from the boss is an example of negative extrinsic motivation, and working hard at cooking to have a good dinner is an example of positive motivation.
Intrinsic motivation is internal, so it is often invisible to other people. Doing something simply because it is personally fun or entertaining is a positive type of intrinsic motivation, and censoring one's own speech to avoid having to apologize later is an example of negative intrinsic motivation.